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Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Sampling

By Esbensen, Kim H

Published on CMKC


Sampling is an important, but sometimes hidden, part of everyday life in science, technology, industry, society and commerce where decisions are made based on analytical results, which must be based on reliable samples. However, there is a very long and complex pathway from heterogeneous materials in “lots” such as satchels, bags, drums, vessels, truck loads, railroad cars, shiploads, stockpiles (in the kg–ton range) to the miniscule laboratory aliquot (in the g–µg range), which is what is actually analysed. Exactly how to acquire a documented, ­representative analytical result across mass-reduction of up to six orders of magnitude of heterogeneous materials is far from a simple materials handling issue. There are specific principles and rules behind representativity. TOS to the fore!This book presents the Theory and Practice of Sampling (TOS) starting from level zero in a novel didactic framework without excessive mathematics and statistics. It represents 20 years of teaching experience which has developed into a unique conceptual framework with which the TOS’ six principles and four unit operations can be understood in a unifying manner, enabling the reader to start sampling in a correct fashion right away. The book covers sampling from stationary lots, from moving, dynamic lots (process sampling) and has a vital focus on sampling in the analytical laboratory. It contains a wealth of complementing cases, examples and references (most of which are accessible on-line) meant to inspire and motivate the reader to individual skills-­building and further self-study.


IMP Publications. 2020



Type of publication

Chapter Book


  • KHE Consulting

Article Classification


Classification Areas

  • PAT
  • Oral solid dose